A Guide to a Healthy Diet for Tortoises

Tortoises are beloved pets requiring a healthy diet to stay healthy and live longer. As such, they must be provided with a diet that meets their nutritional needs throughout their lives. A well-balanced diet is essential for your tortoise’s overall health and well-being. It is important to understand what a healthy diet for your tortoise should include and how to provide it. 

This guide provides an overview of what a healthy diet for tortoises should include, how much they should eat, and how to ensure that their diet is balanced correctly. With the proper diet, your tortoise can remain healthy and happy for many years.

A Guide to a Healthy Diet for Tortoises
A Guide to a Healthy Diet for Tortoises

About Tortoise Healthy Diet

A balanced diet is essential for tortoises, as it provides essential vitamins, minerals, and nutrients necessary for their overall health and well-being. Unfortunately, many tortoises do not receive the proper diet that they need, resulting in malnutrition and other health issues. Fortunately, with a bit of knowledge and effort, it is possible to provide your tortoise with a healthy diet that will ensure its longevity and keep it in good health. In this article, we will discuss the basics of a healthy diet for a tortoise and provide tips on providing your pet with the nutrition it needs.

A Guide to a Healthy Diet for Tortoises
About Tortoise Healthy Diet

Variety of Plants

In the wild, many tortoises are thought to consume 200 different plant types per year. This indicates that a tortoise’s diet consists of a variety of vegetation. Although it is nearly difficult to recreate such a vast range of food in captivity, we must make every effort to ensure that no one plant dominates a tortoise’s diet for an extended period.

Tortoises should eat various plants because they are herbivorous and need a balanced diet to stay healthy. Eating a variety of plants provides tortoises with essential vitamins and minerals, as well as dietary fiber that helps for growth and development and keeps their digestive systems healthy.

Here are examples of various plants for tortoises’ healthy diet:

  • Dandelion 
  • Sow Thistle
  • Clover
  • Wild Pansies
  • Vetches
  • Plantains
  • Grass
  • Turnip Leaves
  • Beetroot Leaves
  • Broccoli
  • Celery & leaves
  • Marigolds
  • Cauliflower
  • Carrot Leaves
  • Spinach
  • Alpine Plants
  • Watercress
  • Honeysuckle
  • Cabbage

Natural Graze and Sunshine

Tortoises require natural graze and sunshine to stay healthy. Natural grazes, such as grasses and weeds, provide essential vitamins and minerals that tortoises cannot get from commercially available foods. Sunshine helps tortoises regulate body temperature, absorb Vitamin D, and metabolize food. Without these essential elements, tortoises can become weak and ill.

Your tortoise should always be allowed outside to graze naturally and receive the benefits of natural sunshine to produce vitamin D whenever it is warm enough to do so. Please make sure that the tortoise cannot access any toxic plants.


Tortoises need a diet that is high in fiber, low in protein and fat and includes plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables. Fruits provide essential vitamins and minerals that are important for a tortoise’s overall health, such as Vitamin A, Vitamin C, and Vitamin E. Additionally, the water content of fruits can help to keep a tortoise hydrated.

Tortoises enjoy the sweetness of fruits, but since most have digestive systems that are not designed for fruit digestion, providing fruit should be kept to a minimum. Species such as Red and Yellow-footed tortoises can tolerate fruit, and therefore it can make up a small part of their daily diet.

Here are examples of fruits a tortoise can eat (in small amounts):

  • Apple
  • Strawberries
  • Pear
  • Peach
  • Melon
  • Grapes


Tortoises need water to stay hydrated, maintain a healthy metabolism, and aid digestion. Without water, they would become dehydrated and have difficulty metabolizing their food and eliminating waste. Water also helps to keep their shell healthy by providing moisture to the scutes. In addition, water helps keep their skin and eyes moist and helps them stay comfortable.

What Are Additional Foods for Tortoises?

One key aspect of caring for a tortoise is providing the proper diet. While there are certain staple foods that tortoises should be eating, some other foods can add variety and nutrition to their diet. Therefore, we will explore some additional foods for a healthy tortoises diet.

A Guide to a Healthy Diet for Tortoises
What Are Additional Foods for Tortoises

Commercial Tortoises Food 

There are various premium commercial tortoise feeds that you may use every day and give a tortoise a range of herbs, fruits, and vegetables. These are frequently available in the shape of pellets and are specially made to ensure your tortoise gets all the nutrients it needs to be healthy. If you cannot acquire fresh flowers close to your home, you may also find additional goodies at nearby pet stores in the shape of snack bars and dried flowers.

One of the best brands of tortoise food is Zoo-Med. Moreover, the Mazuri Tortoise Diet is also quite good. However, you should still only provide these sometimes and not as your tortoise’s entire diet.

Calcium Supplements

Even while dandelion leaves and blossoms are excellent calcium sources, you may need to add supplements to their diet in other ways to be sure they are getting enough. Calcium is essential to a tortoise’s diet because it promotes healthy bone and shell growth and maintenance. Without calcium, your tortoise’s shell will grow more slowly than its body, which can result in a number of unpleasant issues that are readily preventable.

To keep a balanced diet, sprinkle calcium powder over your regular tortoise food. Sometimes you can locate multivitamin items with calcium, but be sure this doesn’t conflict with the other foods your tortoise is eating.


Tortoises need multivitamins because they have a limited diet and may not get all the nutrients they need from their food. The best tortoise diet multivitamins contain a combination of vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. Look for a multivitamin with Vitamin A, D3, E, K, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, Niacin, Folate, Biotin, Pantothenic Acid, Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Manganese, Chromium, and Potassium.

How Often Should You Feed Your Tortoise?

The frequency you feed your tortoise will depend on its age, species, and environment. Generally, hatchlings or juvenile tortoises should be fed daily. As they age, their diet should gradually shift to include more fruits and vegetables. This will help them transition to an adult diet more efficiently.

A Guide to a Healthy Diet for Tortoises
How Often Should You Feed Your Tortoise

Moreover, adult tortoises should be fed every 2-4 days. The feeding frequency can be increased in warmer weather as tortoises are more active and require more energy. Overfeeding can lead to health issues, so it is essential to ensure you provide your tortoise with a balanced diet in the correct amounts.

How Much Should You Feed Your Tortoise?

The amount of food your tortoise needs will depend on its species and size. Generally, smaller species of tortoise will need less food than larger species. In addition, juvenile tortoises require more food than adult tortoises.

A Guide to a Healthy Diet for Tortoises
How Much Should You Feed Your Tortoise

It is also essential to consider the type of food you are feeding your tortoise. A nutritious diet should include a variety of vegetables, fruits, and other high-fiber foods such as hay, grasses, and weeds. If you are feeding your tortoise commercial turtle food, it should account for no more than 10% of their total diet.

Observing their eating habits is the best way to determine how much food your tortoise needs. If your tortoise is still eating after 15 minutes, then it is time to stop feeding and remove any uneaten food. You should also make sure that you are not overfeeding your tortoise, as this can lead to health problems.

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What Food Tortoises Should Avoid?

Many food items that humans and other animals enjoy can be dangerous for tortoises, as their digestive systems are not able to process some of these items. So, it is crucial to understand what foods are safe for tortoises to eat, as well as foods that should be avoided. Let us explain more about what food tortoises should avoid and why it is so important to keep them away from these foods.

A Guide to a Healthy Diet for Tortoises
What Food Tortoises Should Avoid

Low Nutritional Salad Items

Lettuce and other salad ingredients are low in fiber and nutritional value. They swiftly go through the tortoise’s digestive tract; as a result, frequently resulting in loose feces. When your tortoise is overwintering, when healthier foods are less readily available, salad products can be used to supplement other foods rather than being fed on a daily basis.

Here are examples of low-nutritional salad items:

  • Lettuce
  • Cucumber
  • Tomatoes

Protein Rich Vegetables

Protein-rich vegetables like peas and beans should be avoided whenever possible since they contain phytic acid. Root vegetables with a high carbohydrate content, like carrots or parsnips, should be fed in moderation or not at all. When blooming plants and weeds are not accessible, dark green leafy vegetables like cabbage are frequently suggested for tortoises; however, keep in mind that they are strong in goitrogens and should not be eaten entirely.

Here are examples of vegetables your tortoise should avoid:

  • Bean sprouts
  • Peas
  • Green beans
  • Brussels sprouts

Raw Meat

Undercooked meat or raw meat should also be avoided, as this can be difficult for tortoises to digest and could potentially be toxic. Raw meat is toxic for tortoise diets because it can contain bacteria, parasites, and other pathogens that can cause serious illness in tortoises. Additionally, raw meat has a high fat and protein content, which can lead to health problems such as obesity and kidney failure.


Dairy should be avoided for a tortoise diet because it is very high in protein and calcium, both of which can be difficult for tortoises to digest. Additionally, milk and other dairy products are not a natural part of a tortoise’s diet and can lead to nutritional deficiencies, digestive problems, and even obesity.

Dog Food

You should keep the dog food away from the tortoise if you also have a dog. Dog food is not nutritionally balanced for their specific needs. Moreover, dog food typically contains high levels of proteins and fats, which can be too rich for a tortoise’s digestive system. 

Processed Food

Processed foods should be avoided as they are often high in fat and low in nutritional value. These foods also often lack essential vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients that are necessary for proper tortoise growth and development. In addition, processed foods can also be high in fat, calories, and sugar, which can lead to health issues such as obesity and diabetes.

Tips for Healthy Tortoise Diet

The correct diet for a tortoise is high in fiber and calcium and low in fat and protein. This is best highlighted when we look closely at the diet of tortoises in the wild. Studies show that these tortoises graze on grasses and eat various plants, flowers, buds, and roots, providing a protein- and fat-free diet. Let’s take a look at some tips for a healthy tortoise diet!

A Guide to a Healthy Diet for Tortoises
Tips for Healthy Tortoise Diet

1. Provide Proper Nutrition

A healthy diet for your tortoise should consist of fresh vegetables and a variety of fruits, along with some high-quality commercial tortoise food.

2. Provide a Variety

Offer your tortoise plenty of variety in its diet. This will help keep it from becoming bored with its food and help make sure it gets all the nutrients it needs. You can read about a variety of plants for a tortoise’s healthy diet in this article.

3. Offer Leafy Greens

Leafy greens should make up the bulk of your tortoise’s diet. Offer dark leafy greens like kale, collard greens, and turnip greens. See various greens a tortoise can eat and should avoid in this article.

4. Offer Fruits

Fruits can make a nutritious snack for your tortoise. Offer fruits like apples, pears, melons, and berries. Remember to limit the amount, as too much sugar will lead to tortoise health problems.

5. Avoid protein

Too much protein can be harmful to your tortoise, so avoid feeding it any type of animal protein. Please look at the food list a tortoise should avoid in this article.

6. Limit Sweets

Sweets should not be a regular part of your tortoise’s diet. Offer sweet treats like ripe fruits and fresh vegetables only occasionally.

7. Offer a Variety of Vitamins and Minerals

A variety of vitamins and minerals are necessary for a healthy tortoise diet. Offer your tortoise multivitamins and calcium supplements to support your tortoise’s growth and development.

Captive Tortoises Diet 

What tends to happen with captive tortoises is that they are introduced to our own types of foods, and because they are generally high in sugar and protein, they taste better. Unfortunately, in the past, tortoises have been fed on dog and cat food, bread, cheese, and milk, and the list is endless. This type of diet is unnatural, and the tortoise will suffer the consequences of a poor diet by showing outward signs such as a lumpy shell and being overweight. The long-term damage is much more worrying with liver and kidney failure.

A Guide to a Healthy Diet for Tortoises
Captive Tortoises Diet 

In order to provide your tortoise with a good diet, think of low-fat and high fiber; weeds and, of course, green vegetables, herbs, and edible plants are ideal. For a complete list of foods to offer and poisonous plants, we refer you to our Feeding Manual. All food provided should be washed, and a food supplement can be applied every 3rd day to ensure the tortoise gets the correct amount of calcium in their diet.

The society produces in-depth manuals on all aspects of tortoise care, from feeding and breeding to hibernation, etc., and they are available to members and non-members for a small charge.

For further assistance, please contact us.


Finally, a healthy diet is essential for the long-term health and well-being of your pet tortoise. It’s important to remember that a healthy diet for tortoises is not a “one size fits all” solution. Every tortoise is unique and requires a diet that is tailored to its individual needs. With the proper care and diet, tortoises can enjoy years of happy and healthy living

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